October 2009 Archives

Mexican Axolotls Face Extinction In The Wild

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Axltl4.jpgMexican axolotls are strange salamanders that never lose their larval gills or dorsal fins. Using a process called neoteny, they do not undergo metamorphosis yet become adults underwater, where they will stay for their entire lives. But, because their freshwater habitat near Mexico City is being drained and polluted, it is not likely that the comical-looking amphibians will survive in the wild. Their popularity in aquariums and as pets has also led to the creature's diminishing numbers. Fish that prey on salamanders were introduced into the ecosystem, which was detrimental to the axolotls' populations because the amphibians are not used to being hunted, except by natural threats like herons and other large birds. And, in some places, humans consider axolotls a delicacy.

Because large populations of captive axolotls exist, they will not go entirely extinct. Reintroduction of the species is unlikely for many reasons, primarily because they would have less genetic diversity and would be more susceptible to a fungal disease called chytridiomycosis, which can be fatal to amphibians and is very difficult to cure. It has currently infected thirty percent of all amphibian species.

There are seven species of axolotls, but only the Mexican axolotls never lose their gills. The others are capable of never "growing up" and coming out of the water, but they only stay larvae if the temperature is too cold for them to become adults. The carnivorous Mexican axolotls can live up to fifteen years. Like some lizards, they can replace lost body parts and are therefore used in scientific research. They grow up to 1 foot long and are currently specified as critically endangered.

But there is a chance that the axolotls will not go extinct in the wild. Scientists are working to create new refuges for the animals to live in, so that their numbers do not continue to fall and, ultimately, so that the cute creatures will survive in nature.

The Indian Cheetah: Return From Extinction?

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indian cheetah 2.jpgAsiatic cheetahs once were the dominant inhabitants of the Indian grasslands. Today none are left anywhere but in Iran, where 100 are still surviving. Few Asiatic cheetahs are raised in captivity, and only one litter has been bred in India. They were called "hunting leopards" during Britain's colonialism of India because they were used by the royalty to hunt wild antelope until the cats themselves became hunters' trophies. Habitat loss to growing farmlands also led to the cheetah's eventual extinction.

But reintroducing them is not an easy task either. Iran refused India's requests for two Asiatic cheetahs and would not let them have samples from a captive cheetah that might enable scientists to clone the species. As a result, India is considering importing African cheetahs instead of the Asiatic ones. Because there are few differences between them scientists do not think there will be a problem with introducing the African subspecies.

Some environmentalists are concerned that the cheetahs will be living in a huge zoo-like environment and not truly in the wild. Other threats include poaching due to pecuniary causes or genetic similarities, which cause deficient immune systems and, in cheetahs, deformed tails. Another danger is farmers' concerns for their livestock, which may lead them to hunt the cats. However, cheetahs, preferring wild prey, do not actually kill domesticated animals if they can help it. The males, however, will include farmland as part of their territory, causing problems. (Females do not mark territories.)

Hopefully the Indian government will succeed in its efforts to import the cheetahs, because they are the only big cats not found in India, as their tiger and lion populations are growing. And - hopefully soon - the fastest land animal in the world will again prevail on the plains of India.

More Information:
India plans return of the cheetah
Asiatic Cheetah
India asks for roadmap for reintroduction of cheetahs

Going Bananas: Vegan Banana Nut Muffin Recipe

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Ingredients:
2 cups flour
1 ½ tsp. baking soda
½ tsp salt
1 cup raw sugar
1/3 cup oil
4 ripe mashed bananas
¼ cup water
1 tsp. vanilla extract
Approximately 1 cup chopped walnuts

Preheat oven to 350 F. Mix flour, baking soda, and salt together in one bowl; beat sugar and oil in another bowl. Mix the sugar mix thoroughly with mashed bananas, water, and vanilla. Add dry ingredients and walnuts, adding water as needed. Bake muffins 25 minutes or until toothpick comes out clean. Makes approximately 24 muffins; depending on how full you fill the muffin cups, it may be 22 or 23.

For Energy Muffins:
¼ cup wheat germ
2-4 tablespoons ground flax

Adding the flax and wheat germ makes the recipe healthier; I adjusted it so that it would be filling and wholesome enough to replace the power bars on road trips. It worked. Note that the ground flax seed can be used as a replacement for butter, so the wheat germ, which is dry, is essential.

For High Altitude Baking:
½ teaspoon baking soda
Under ¼ cup oil
3 ripe mashed bananas

Preheat oven to 365 degrees F.

Ding-Bats in The Belfry

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A black shadow darts overhead in the twilight sky. It lands on a branch and twists upside down. Realizing it's a bat, you dart back into the house.

frtbttng.jpgNot all bats live up to their frightening reputation, however. Fruit bats are an essential pollinator for wild bananas, peaches, mangoes and dates, as well as scattering their seeds through droppings. The diverse diet of bats extends even to flowers and nectar, like the Cave Nectar Bats of Southeast Asia.

Echolocation is one of the many extraordinary features of bats. They issue a clicking sound that bounces off objects and echoes back. The bat can judge the distance and decide where it wants to go. To listen to bat sounds, Click Here.

Not very many bats are blood-sucking monsters, like in the mostly fictional vampire stories. Only three species out of the thousands discovered feed on blood. Bats, instead of being eerie denizens of the dark, are actually only another mammal and their 12 endangered species should be taken care of.

Top Ten Things To Do For The Environment

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1. Cut up 6-pack rings because animals can choke on these.
lbd.jpg2. Avoid balloons or other flimsy plastic items. Turtles can choke on these because they mistake them for jellyfish and eat them.
3. Recycle everything that can be recycled. Buy recycled paper or notebooks at the store.
4. Try to reduce use of heat or air conditioning. Instead, turn on the fan or don a handy sweater.
5. Try to get out of using your car. Instead you can buy a bike or, if it is a short distance, walk.  
6. Plant trees in your garden. That reduces pollution in the air and gives shade.   
7. Reduce usage of water by not turning it on full blast in the sink or turning it off while you wash in the shower.
8. Turn off lights or the television when you leave a room: it saves electricity.  
9. Don't throw any food out the car window. That teaches animals to hunt by the road and eventually they get run over.
10. If you don't need bags at the grocery store, say it. That reduces plastic usage (see above) and saves paper. Another option is reusable bags.   

Confessions Of A Bloggerhead Turtle

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trts-t-plstc.jpgTurtles are greatly endangered due to both light and plastic. Both seem harmless. But they are greatly damaging the population of sea turtles.

It is not uncommon to build hotels or other accommodations on the seashore. But it is harmful. Turtles are naturally guided by the moon to the sea once they hatch from their eggs on the beach. But the lights now guide the turtles away from the beach. They soon die.

Then there's plastic. They mistake it for jellyfish (one of their favorite foods) and die because they cannot digest it. Their life expectancy is 80 years in the wild, but now these dangers threaten their lifespans. And, to add to the cumulative effect of this misery for the graceful creatures, only 1 out of every 100 eggs laid will survive to adulthood. The turtles' chances of survival naturally are not great, and that is why we need to be more aware of their peril to this day.

    Every species of sea turtle is endangered. That means that one of these species could go extinct if we all keep going with these wasteful ways. We have to try and stop it when these things happen to the fragile world around us.  

    What We Can Do:

•    Use less plastic
•    Try not to stay in hotels on the seashore or
•    Encourage your hotel to use light dimmer than the moon
•    Buy reusable cloth bags at your local store
•    "Adopt" a turtle at a wildlife conserving website like WWF or Defenders of Wildlife
•    Cut up any 6-pack plastic rings or balloons or
•    Don't buy any flimsy plastic items

About this Archive

This page is an archive of entries from October 2009 listed from newest to oldest.

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